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I’ve always been intrigued by the subject of intelligence. As a child my mother would refer to me as “smart,” but I quickly noticed that all parents refer to their children as smart. In time I would discover that all children are not smart, just as all babies are not cute. If that were the case, we’d have a world full of beautiful, smart people – which we don’t.

Some of us are smart; but not as smart as we think, and others are smarter than they seem, which makes me wonder, how do we define smart? What makes one person smarter than another? When do “street smarts” matter more than “book smarts”? Can you be both smart and stupid? Is being smart more of a direct influence of genetics, or one’s environment?

Then there are the issues of education, intelligence and wisdom.

What does it mean to be highly educated? What’s the difference between being highly educated and highly intelligent? Does being highly educated automatically make you highly intelligent? Can one be highly intelligent without being highly educated? Do IQs really mean anything? What makes a person wise? Why is wisdom typically associated with old age?

My desire to seek answers to these questions inspired many hours of intense research which included the reading of 6 books, hundreds of research documents, and countless hours on the Internet; which pales in comparison to the lifetime of studies and research that pioneers in the fields of intelligence and education like Howard Gardner, Richard Sternberg, Linda S. Gottfredson, Thomas Sowell, Alfie Kohn, and Diane F. Halpern whose work is cited in this article.

My goal was simple: Amass, synthesize, and present data on what it means to be smart, educated and intelligent so that it can be understood and used by anyone for their benefit.


With this in mind, there was not a better (or more appropriate) place to start than at the very beginning of our existence: as a fetus in the womb.

There is mounting evidence that the consumption of food that’s high in iron both before and during pregnancy is critical to building the prenatal brain. Researchers have found a strong association between low iron levels during pregnancy and diminished IQ. Foods rich in iron include lima beans, kidney beans, pinto beans, spinach, asparagus, broccoli, seafoods, nuts, dried fruits, oatmeal, and fortified cereals.

Children with low iron status in utero (in the uterus) scored lower on every test and had significantly lower language ability, fine-motor skills, and tractability than children with higher prenatal iron levels. In essence, proper prenatal care is critical to the development of cognitive skills.


Cognitive skills are the basic mental abilities we use to think, study, and learn. They include a wide variety of mental processes used to analyze sounds and images, recall information from memory, make associations between different pieces of information, and maintain concentration on particular tasks. They can be individually identified and measured. Cognitive skill strength and efficiency correlates directly with students’ ease of learning.


Drinking while pregnant is not smart. In fact, it’s downright stupid.

A study in Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research has found that even light to moderate drinking – especially during the second trimester – is associated with lower IQs in offspring at 10 years of age. This result was especially pronounced among African-American rather than Caucasian offspring.

“IQ is a measure of the child’s ability to learn and to survive in his or her environment. It predicts the potential for success in school and in everyday life. Although a small but significant percentage of children are diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) each year, many more children are exposed to alcohol during pregnancy who do not meet criteria for FAS yet experience deficits in growth and cognitive function,” said Jennifer A. Willford, assistant professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.

Paul D. Connor, clinical director of the Fetal Alcohol and Drug Unit and assistant professor in the department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the University of Washington has this to say about the subject:

“There are a number of domains of cognitive functioning that can be impaired even in the face of a relatively normal IQ, including academic achievement (especially arithmetic), adaptive functioning, and executive functions (the ability to problem solve and learn from experiences). Deficits in intellectual, achievement, adaptive, and executive functioning could make it difficult to appropriately manage finances, function independently without assistance, and understand the consequences of – or react appropriately to – mistakes.”

This is a key finding which speaks directly to the (psychological) definition of intelligence which is addressed later in this article.


Studies have shown that the frequent exposure of the human fetus to ultrasound waves is associated with a decrease in newborn body weight, an increase in the frequency of left-handedness, and delayed speech.

Because ultrasound energy is a high-frequency mechanical vibration, researchers hypothesized that it might influence the migration of neurons in a developing fetus. Neurons in mammals multiply early in fetal development and then migrate to their final destinations. Any interference or disruption in the process could result in abnormal brain function.

Commercial companies (which do ultrasounds for “keepsake” purposes) are now creating more powerful ultrasound machines capable of providing popular 3D and 4D images. The procedure, however, lasts longer as they try to make 30-minute videos of the fetus in the uterus.

The main stream magazine New Scientist reported the following: Ultrasound scans can stop cells from dividing and make them commit suicide. Routine scans, which have let doctors peek at fetuses and internal organs for the past 40 years, affect the normal cell cycle.

On the FDA website this information is posted about ultrasounds:

While ultrasound has been around for many years, expectant women and their families need to know that the long-term effects of repeated ultrasound exposures on the fetus are not fully known. In light of all that remains unknown, having a prenatal ultrasound for non-medical reasons is not a good idea.


Now that you are aware of some of the known factors which determine, improve, and impact the intellectual development of a fetus, it’s time for conception. Once that baby is born, which will be more crucial in the development of its intellect: nature (genetics) or nurture (the environment)?

Apparently for centuries, scientists and psychologists have gone back and forth on this. I read many comprehensive studies and reports on this subject during the research phase of this article, and I believe that it’s time to put this debate to rest. Both nature and nurture are equally as important and must be fully observed in the intellectual development of all children. This shouldn’t be an either/or proposition.

A recent study shows that early intervention in the home and in the classroom can make a big difference for a child born into extreme poverty, according to Eric Turkheimer, a psychologist at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. The study concludes that while genetic makeup explains most of the differences in IQ for children in wealthier families, environment – and not genes – makes a bigger difference for minority children in low-income homes.

Specifically, what researchers call “heritability”- the degree to which genes influence IQ – was significantly lower for poor families. “Once you’re put into an adequate environment, your genes start to take over,” Mr. Turkheimer said, “but in poor environments genes don’t have that ability.”

But there are reports that contradict these findings…sort of.

Linda S. Gottfredson, a professor of educational studies at the University of Delaware, wrote in her article, The General Intelligence Factor that environments shared by siblings have little to do with IQ. Many people still mistakenly believe that social, psychological and economic differences among families create lasting and marked differences in IQ.

She found that behavioral geneticists refer to such environmental effects as “shared” because they are common to siblings who grow up together. Her reports states that the heritability of IQ rises with age; that is to say, the extent to which genetics accounts for differences in IQ among individuals increases as people get older.

In her article she also refers to studies comparing identical and fraternal twins, published in the past decade by a group led by Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr., of the University of Minnesota and other scholars, show that about 40 percent of IQ differences among preschoolers stems from genetic differences, but that heritability rises to 60 percent by adolescence and to 80 percent by late adulthood.

And this is perhaps the most interesting bit of information, and relevant to this section of my article:

With age, differences among individuals in their developed intelligence come to mirror more closely their genetic differences. It appears that the effects of environment on intelligence fade rather than grow with time.

Bouchard concludes that young children have the circumstances of their lives imposed on them by parents, schools and other agents of society, but as people get older they become more independent and tend to seek out the life niches that are most congenial to their genetic proclivities.


Researchers from Christchurch School of Medicine in New Zealand studied over 1,000 children born between April and August 1977. During the period from birth to one year, they gathered information on how these children were fed.

The infants were then followed to age 18. Over the years, the researchers collected a range of cognitive and academic information on the children, including IQ, teacher ratings of school performance in reading and math, and results of standardized tests of reading comprehension, mathematics, and scholastic ability. The researchers also looked at the number of passing grades achieved in national School Certificate examinations taken at the end of the third year of high school.

The results indicated that the longer children had been breast-fed, the higher they scored on such tests.


Thomas Sowell, author of Race, IQ, Black Crime, and facts Liberals Ignore uncovered some fascinating information that every parent should take note of. He writes:

There is a strong case that black Americans suffer from a series of disadvantageous environments. Studies show time and again that before they go to school, black children are on average exposed to a smaller vocabulary than white children, in part due to socioeconomic factors.

While children from professional households typically exposed to a total of 2,150 different words each day, children from working class households are exposed to 1,250, and children from households on welfare a mere 620.

Yes, smart sounding children tend to come from educated, professional, two-parent environments where they pick-up valuable language skills and vocabulary from its smart sounding inhabitants.

Mr. Sowell continues: Black children are obviously not to blame for their poor socioeconomic status, but something beyond economic status is at work in black homes. Black people have not signed up for the “great mission” of the white middle class – the constant quest to stimulate intellectual growth and get their child into Harvard or Oxbridge.

Elsie Moore of Arizona State University, Phoenix, studied black children adopted by either black or white parents, all of whom were middle-class professionals. By the age of 7.5 years, those in black homes were 13 IQ points behind those being raised in the white homes.


At this juncture in my research it dawned on me, and should be fairly obvious to you, that many children are predisposed to being smart, educated, and intelligent, simply by their exposure to the influential factors which determine them long before they start school.

An informed mother, proper prenatal care, educated, communicative parents, and a nurturing environment in which to live, all add up to accumulated advantages that formulate intellectual abilities. As you can see, some children have unfair advantages from the very beginning.

Malcolm Gladwell, author of top-selling book Outliers, wrote that “accumulated advantages” are made possible by arbitrary rules…and such unfair advantages are everywhere. “It is those who are successful who are most likely to be given the kinds of social opportunities that lead to further success,” he writes. “It’s the rich who get the biggest tax breaks. It’s the best students who get the best teaching and most attention.”

With that in mind, we turn our attention to education and intelligence.


Alfie Kohn, author of the book What Does It Mean To Be Well Educated? poses the question, does the phrase well educated refer to a quality of schooling you received, or something about you? Does it denote what you were taught? Or what you remember?

I contend that to be well educated is all in the application; the application and use of information. Information has to be used in order to become knowledge, and as we all have heard, knowledge is power.

Most people are aware of the floundering state of education in this country on some level. We tell our children that nothing is more important than getting a “good” education, and every year, due to government budget shortfalls, teachers are laid off, classes are condensed, schools are closed, and many educational programs – especially those which help the underprivileged – are cut.

The reality is, we don’t really value education. We value it as a business, an industry, political ammunition, and as an accepted form of discrimination, but not for what it was intended: a means of enriching one’s character and life through learning.

What we value as a society, are athletes and the entertainment they offer. The fact that a professional athlete makes more money in one season, than most teachers in any region will make in their careers, is abominable. There’s always money to build new sports stadiums, but not enough to give teachers a decent (and well-deserved) raise.

Ironically, the best teachers don’t go into the profession for money. They teach because it’s a calling. Most of them were influenced by a really good teacher as a student. With the mass exodus of teachers, many students are not able to cultivate the mentoring relationships that they once were able to because so many are leaving the profession – voluntarily and involuntarily – within an average of three years.

At the high school level, where I got my start, the emphasis is not on how to educate the students to prepare them for life, or even college (all high schools should be college-prep schools, right?), it was about preparing them to excel on their standardized tests. Then the controversial “exit” exams were implemented and literally, many high schools were transformed into testing centers. Learning has almost become secondary.

This mentality carries over into college, which of course there’s a test one must take in order to enroll (the SAT or ACT). This explains why so many college students are more concerned with completing a course, than learning from it. They are focused on getting “A’s” and degrees, instead of becoming degreed thinkers. The latter of which are in greater demand by employers and comprise the bulk of the self-employed. The “get-the-good-grade” mindset is directly attributable to the relentless and often unnecessary testing that our students are subjected to in schools.

Alfie Kohn advocates the “exhibition” of learning, in which students reveal their understanding by means of in-depth projects, portfolios of assignments, and other demonstrations.

He cites a model pioneered by Ted Sizer and Deborah Meier. Meier has emphasized the importance of students having five “habits of mind,” which are: the value of raising questions about evidence (“How do we know what we know?”), point of view, (“Whose perspective does this represent?”), connections (“How is this related to that?”), supposition (“How might things have been otherwise?”), and relevance (“Why is this important?”).

Kohn writes: It’s only the ability to raise and answer those questions that matters, though, but also the disposition to do so. For that matter, any set of intellectual objectives, any description of what it means to think deeply and critically, should be accompanied by a reference to one’s interest or intrinsic motivation to do such thinking…to be well-educated then, is to have the desire as well as the means to make sure that learning never ends…


We’ve always wanted to measure intelligence. Ironically, when you look at some the first methods used to evaluate it in the 1800s, they were not, well, very intelligent. Tactics such as subjecting people to various forms of torture to see what their threshold for pain was (the longer you could withstand wincing, the more intelligent you were believed to be), or testing your ability to detect a high pitch sound that others could not hear.

Things have changed…or have they?

No discussion of intelligence or IQ can be complete without mention of Alfred Binet, a French psychologist who was responsible for laying the groundwork for IQ testing in 1904. His original intention was to devise a test that would diagnose learning disabilities of students in France. The test results were then used to prepare special programs to help students overcome their educational difficulties.

It was never intended to be used as an absolute measure of one’s intellectual capabilities.

According to Binet, intelligence could not be described as a single score. He said that the use of the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) as a definite statement of a child’s intellectual capability would be a serious mistake. In addition, Binet feared that IQ measurement would be used to condemn a child to a permanent “condition” of stupidity, thereby negatively affecting his or her education and livelihood.

The original interest was in the assessment of ‘mental age’ — the average level of intelligence for a person of a given age. His creation, the Binet-Simon test (originally called a “scale”), formed the archetype for future tests of intelligence.

H. H. Goddard, director of research at Vineland Training School in New Jersey, translated Binet’s work into English and advocated a more general application of the Simon-Binet test. Unlike Binet, Goddard considered intelligence a solitary, fixed and inborn entity that could be measured. With help of Lewis Terman of Stanford University, his final product, published in 1916 as the Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Scale of Intelligence (also known as the Stanford-Binet), became the standard intelligence test in the United States.

It’s important to note that the fallacy about IQ is that it is fixed and can not be changed. The fact is that IQ scores are known to fluctuate – both up and down during the course of one’s lifetime. It does not mean that you become more, or less intelligent, it merely means that you tested better on one day than another.

One more thing to know about IQ tests: They have been used for racist purposes since their importation into the U.S. Many of those who were involved in the importation and refinement of these tests believed that IQ was hereditary and are responsible for feeding the fallacy that it is a “fixed” trait.

Many immigrants were tested in the 1920s and failed these IQ tests miserably. As a result, many of them were denied entry into the U.S., or were forced to undergo sterilization for fear of populating America with “dumb” and “inferior” babies. If you recall, the tests were designed for white, middle class Americans. Who do you think would have the most difficulty passing them?

Lewis Terman developed the original notion of IQ and proposed this scale for classifying IQ scores:

000 – 070: Definite feeble-mindedness
070 – 079: Borderline deficiency
080 – 089: Dullness
090 – 109: Normal or average intelligence
110 – 119: Superior intelligence
115 – 124: Above average (e.g., university students)
125 – 134: Gifted (e.g., post-graduate students)
135 – 144: Highly gifted (e.g., intellectuals)
145 – 154: Genius (e.g., professors)
155 – 164: Genius (e.g., Nobel Prize winners)
165 – 179: High genius
180 – 200: Highest genius
200 – higher ?: Immeasurable genius

*Genius IQ is generally considered to begin around 140 to 145, representing only 25% of the population (1 in 400).
*Einstein was considered to “only” have an IQ of about 160.


Diane F. Halpern, a psychologist and past-president of the American Psychological Association (APA), wrote in her essay contribution to Why Smart People Can Be So Stupid that in general, we recognize people as intelligent if they have some combination of these achievements (1) good grades in school; (2) a high level of education; (3) a responsible, complex job; (4) some other recognition of being intelligent, such as winning prestigious awards or earning a large salary; (5) the ability to read complex text with good comprehension; (6) solve difficult and novel problems.

Throughout my research and in the early phases of this article, I came across many definitions of the word intelligence. Some were long, some were short. Some I couldn’t even understand. The definition that is most prevalent is the one created by the APA which is: the ability to adapt to one’s environment, and learn from one’s mistakes.

How about that? There’s the word environment again. We just can’t seem to escape it. This adds deeper meaning to the saying, “When in Rome, do as the Romans do.” It means recognizing what’s going on in your environment, and having the intelligence adapt to it – and the people who occupy it – in order to survive and succeed within it.

There are also many different forms of intelligence. Most notably those created by Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University.

Dr. Gardner believes (and I agree) that our schools and culture focus most of their attention on linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence. We esteem the highly articulate or logical people of our culture. However, Dr. Gardner says that we should also place equal attention on individuals who show gifts in the other intelligences: the artists, architects, musicians, naturalists, designers, dancers, therapists, entrepreneurs, and others who enrich the world in which we live.

He felt that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on IQ testing, was far too limited and created the Theories Of Multiple Intelligences in 1983 to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults.

These intelligences are:

Linguistic intelligence (“word smart”)
Logical-mathematical intelligence (“number/reasoning smart”)
Spatial intelligence (“picture smart”)
Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence (“body smart”)
Musical intelligence (“music smart”)
Interpersonal intelligence (“people smart”)
Intrapersonal intelligence (“self smart”)
Naturalist intelligence (“nature smart”)

Not associated with Dr. Gardner, but equally respected are:


According to, Psychologist Raymond Cattell first proposed the concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence and further developed the theory with John Horn. The Cattell-Horn theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence suggests that intelligence is composed of a number of different abilities that interact and work together to produce overall individual intelligence.

Cattell defined fluid intelligence as “…the ability to perceive relationships independent of previous specific practice or instruction concerning those relationships.” Fluid intelligence is the ability to think and reason abstractly and solve problems. This ability is considered independent of learning, experience, and education. Examples of the use of fluid intelligence include solving puzzles and coming up with problem solving strategies.

Crystallized intelligence is learning from past experiences and learning. Situations that require crystallized intelligence include reading comprehension and vocabulary exams. This type of intelligence is based upon facts and rooted in experiences. This type of intelligence becomes stronger as we age and accumulate new knowledge and understanding.

Both types of intelligence increase throughout childhood and adolescence. Fluid intelligence peaks in adolescence and begins to decline progressively beginning around age 30 or 40. Crystallized intelligence continues to grow throughout adulthood.


Then there’s Successful Intelligence, which is authored by intelligence psychologist and Yale professor, Robert J. Sternberg, who believes that the whole concept of relating IQ to life achievement is misguided, because he believes that IQ is a pretty miserable predictor of life achievement.

His Successful Intelligence theory focuses on 3 types of intelligence which are combined to contribute to one’s overall success: Analytical Intelligence; mental steps or components used to solve problems; Creative Intelligence: the use of experience in ways that foster insight (creativity/divergent thinking); and Practical Intelligence: the ability to read and adapt to the contexts of everyday life.

With regard to environment, Mr. Sternberg writes in his book Successful Intelligence: Successfully intelligent people realize that the environment in which they find themselves may or may not be able to make the most of their talents. They actively seek an environment where they can not only do successful work, but make a difference. They create opportunities rather than let opportunities be limited by circumstances in which they happen to find themselves.

As an educator, I subscribe to Mr. Sternberg’s Successful Intelligence approach to teaching. It has proven to be a highly effective tool and mindset for my college students. Using Successful Intelligence as the backbone of my context-driven curriculum really inspires students to see how education makes their life goals more attainable, and motivates them to further develop their expertise. Mr. Sternberg believes that the major factor in achieving expertise is purposeful engagement.


In his best-selling 1995 book, Emotional Intelligence, Daniel Goleman reported that research shows that conventional measures of intelligence – IQ – only account for 20% of a person’s success in life. For example, research on IQ and education shows that high IQ predicts 10 to 25% of grades in college. The percentage will vary depending on how we define success. Nonetheless, Goleman’s assertion begs the question: What accounts for the other 80%?

You guessed it…Emotional Intelligence. What exactly is emotional intelligence? Emotional intelligence (also called EQ or EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions. Many corporations now have mandatory EQ training for their managers in an effort to improve employee
relations and increase productivity.


You’ve heard the phrase, “Experience is the greatest teacher…”

In psychology circles knowledge gained from everyday experience is called tacit knowledge. The colloquial term is “street smarts,” which implies that formal, classroom instruction (aka “book smarts”) has nothing to do with it. The individual is not directly instructed as to what he or she should learn, but rather must extract the important lesson from the experience even when learning is not the primary objective.

Tacit knowledge is closely related to common sense, which is sound and prudent judgment based on a simple perception of the situation or facts. As you know, common sense is not all that common.

Tacit knowledge, or the lessons obtained from it, seems to “stick” both faster and better when the lessons have direct relevance to the individual’s goals. Knowledge that is based on one’s own practical experience will likely be more instrumental to achieving one’s goals than will be knowledge that is based on someone else’s experience, or that is overly generic and abstract.


Yes, it’s possible to be both smart and stupid. I’m sure someone you know comes to mind at this precise moment. But the goal here is not to ridicule, but to understand how some seemingly highly intelligent, or highly educated individuals can be so smart in one way, and incredibly stupid in others.

The woman who is a respected, well paid, dynamic executive who consistently chooses men who don’t appear to be worthy of her, or the man who appears to be a pillar of the community, with a loving wife and happy kids, ends up being arrested on rape charges.

It happens, but why? I found the answer in Why Smart People Can Be So Stupid. Essentially, intellect is domain specific. In other words, being smart (knowledgeable) in one area of your life, and stupid (ignorant) in another is natural. Turning off one’s brain is quite common especially when it comes to what we desire. A shared characteristic among those who are smart and stupid, is the difficulty in delaying gratification.

Olem Ayduk & Walter Mischel who wrote the chapter summarized: Sometimes stupid behavior in smart people may arise from faulty expectations, erroneous beliefs, or merely a lack of motivation to enact control strategies even when one has them. But sometimes it is an inability to regulate one’s affective states and the behavioral tendencies associated with them that leads to stupid and self-defeating behavior.

The central character in this book who many of these lessons regarding being smart and stupid revolve around is Bill Clinton and his affair with Monica Lewinksky.


My great grandmother, Leola Cecil, maybe had an 8th grade education at the most. By no stretch of the imagination was she highly educated, but she had what seemed like infinite wisdom. She was very observant and could “read” people with startling accuracy. Till the very end of her life she shared her “crystallized intelligence” with whomever was receptive to it.

She died at the age of 94. I often use many of her sayings as a public speaker, but most importantly, I use her philosophies to make sure that I’m being guided spiritually and not just intellectually. Many of us who are lucky enough to have a great grandparent can testify that there is something special about their knowledge. They seem to have life figured out, and a knack for helping those of us who are smart, educated and intelligent see things more clearly when we are too busy thinking.

What they have is what we should all aspire to end up with if we are lucky: wisdom.

Wisdom is the ability to look through a person, when others can only look at them. Wisdom slows down the thinking process and makes it more organic; synchronizing it with intuition. Wisdom helps you make better judgments regarding decisions, and makes you less judgmental. Wisdom is understanding without knowing, and accepting without understanding. Wisdom is recognizing what’s important to other people, and knowing that other people are of the utmost importance to you. Wisdom is both a starting point, and a final conclusion.


There are always drivers out there who try their best to make the best modified car on the streets. They change everything from the external trim to the interiors. Are you looking at making your car completely customised too? Start off with changing the wheels first as they can make the most dramatic impact.

What shape is your car? Sometimes, certain wheels only look good on certain shapes such as hatchbacks, sedan or coupes. Hatchback car models look really good with the busier wheels with over six spokes. The series ranges that have this unique look are Black Angel, Opus, Project D and Samurai.

Black Angel wheels usually come in a two tone style. The style of the spokes on the Black Angel wheels is tapered. You won’t see the variation at first glance but the fine detail adds beauty to the multiple spoke wheels. This, ultimately, gives your hatchback a unique appearance. Many of the Black Angel wheels have a spiral centre that looks like it has a mirage effect. This specific model has a shiny silver face with the interior a complete black. The gap between the two colours allows you to visibly see the difference.

Samurai is one of the most popular series of Lenso Wheels. Most of the models have a completely silver face with the linings in black that almost looks like a mask – something that a Samurai would wear. Samurai wheels complement hatchbacks because of their contrasting appearances. Samurai usually has complicated patterns that look stunning on a small car. Each Samurai model is also equipped with a unique sign. The sign is the logo for the series and is always in red so that it gets noticed.

The Opus series does not have many models in the range that has the multiple spokes style. A few wheels in this range have a specific pattern that is unique to the series. For example, the OP3 model has its spokes paired and the OP5 alternates between a pair of spokes and a singular spoke.

Project D was mainly made for drift racers but Lenso decided to add a version of this range for the everyday driver. If you look at any of the models, you will notice that between every spoke is a curved V-shape without sharp points. Each spoke is also quite deep for better support. This series is also another popular Lenso Wheels brand that looks good on small hatchback vehicles.


If you are wondering if the guy still likes you even though he behaves like you don’t exist, watch him carefully and learn to pick up signs that tells you that he still does! Here are some reasons as to why he is ignoring you even if he still has feelings for you.

It’s more than possible that he is trying to make you curious
One of the reasons why a man will ignore the woman he likes is because he wants her to be curious about his feelings for her. If he pretends that he does not care and ignores her, she will feel “pipped” and neglected and her ego will take a blow! To avoid this, she will try to attract him and interest him all over again.

He likes you but can’t handle it
In case he feels intimidated by you and does not know how to handle his feelings for you, he might just ignore you till he can gain confidence and pursue you. This is risky because you might just lose interest in him and get involved with another guy who is more confident and pushy.

He could be faking the disinterest
Even though he still likes you, he does not want to admit it for some reason or the other. Maybe he feels that showing you that he still likes you makes him look vulnerable and “weak” and he wants to prove that he is strong and independent. This could be the reason why he is faking the disinterest.

He wants you to chase him
There could be many reasons as to why he has chosen to ignore you. One of the most common ones is that he feels that it would make you chase him and pursue him. If he decides to play “hard to get” he believes that it would make him more attractive and unattainable to you.

He does not know how to pursue you
A shy guy who does not know how to pursue you or woo you will behave like he is not affected by you in any way. He will ignore you and pretend that you mean nothing to him. This is just a cover up for his true feelings and he will only behave differently when he gets more confident.

He feels insecure about your feelings for him
If he does not know how you feel towards him and is afraid of making a move towards you, he will ignore you till he knows how much you like him. A deep fear of rejection might make him neglect or ignore you.

He has lost interest in you and wants to move on
If he has really lost interest in you and wants to move on, he might ignore you to give you the message. Check and see if he seems happy with someone else. It is better to accept the reality rather than cling to something that is not real.


American TV Series are often loaded with sex scenes, and the production seems to try to squeeze in at least 5 sexual scenes in each episode. And people love it. In the following few posts, I will present to you our Top 10 of America’s sexiest TV Series.

Sex in the City

Showcased for the first time on HBO in 1998, this glamour TV show brings to us the ups and downs of 4 New York single girlfriends, Carrie, Samantha, Charlotte & Miranda. Each is either looking for sex, love or to found a family. A great series that treats sexuality with a nice touch of humor.

Sex and the City – Movie Trailer on YouTube


Californication is for men what Sex in the City is for women. In this series full of sex, drugs and alcohol, Hank Moody (David Duchovny) has sex as often as he can. Beautiful women, young girls, bottles of wine, whisky, joints… nothing is left out by this forty-some artist still broken hearted by his muse.

For a glimpse, search for Californication – Trailer on YouTube

The L World

The L World is the first series exclusively dedicated to lesbian sexuality. The explicit “women on women” sex scenes have as a goal to break taboos. Jenny, a young student in search of love moves in with her future husband, Tim, but ends up falling under Marina’s charm, a Latina sex bomb. This is the beginning of tons of questioning and loads of hot nights in L.A. where ladies have sex in public washrooms and all…

For a glimpse, search for The L Word: Season 5 Coming in 2008 on YouTube

Desperate Housewifes

What kind of life do women have in an uptown suburbia of the States? At Wisteria Lane, women face infidelity, relationship issues, seduction, crime, suspense, and more. Behind her perfect appearance, Bree hides a complex personality. Gabrielle, ex-fashion model is scared of routine and therefore alternates between expensive shopping sprees and extramarital relationships. Lynette tries to manage both her professional life and big family, while Susan always finds a way to make her chaotic love life even more complicated. And finally, Edie seems to love creating conflicts. An amusing and sexy portrait of typical house wives that was a great success.

For a glimpse, search for Everything You Need to Know About Desperate Housewives on YouTube

Tell me you love me

In Tell Me You Love Me, three couples in therapy have the most realistic sexual relationships ever seen on American TV. So realistic that everybody wonders is they really did it or not. They claim that aside from masturbation and fellatio, it was all an enactment, but the rumor keeps contributing to its success. Dr May Foster, a marriage counselor, meets the couples which she tries to assist. Dave & Katie, in their forties, no longer have sex. Carolyn & Palek, in their thirties, want a kid but the pressure is too high for Carolyn. And finally, Jamie & Hugo, engaged, must face infidelity. Between sexuality & psychology, this is one of the most realistic series.

For a glimpse, search for Tell Me You Love Me: Episode 2 Trailer on YouTube


This trashy series relates the life of Lucy Spiller, heartless chief editor of two gossip & scandals newspapers. Far away from her role in Friends, Courtney Cox shocks the public who watches her having intercourse with a sex toy. Not only does she play the first role in this series, she also assists her husband, David Arquette, in the production of this sexy series.

For a glimpse, search for Dirt Trailer Promo on YouTube

Nip Tuck

In this trashy series, we see two plastic surgeons in their professional environment, but also in their colorful intimate lives… loaded with incest, rape, bisexuality, Tran sexuality and sadomasochism. With the arrival of Portia De Rossi next season, where she will have a savage relationship with another woman, the public will be again pleased with a series that explores the physical & moral boundaries of human sexuality.

For a glimpse, search for Nip/Tuck Season 1 Promo on YouTube

Big Love

Co-produced by Tom Hanks, this series is one of America’s Top 5 most watched TV shows. Full of family drama, it talks about Bill Henrickson, a polygamous Mormon from Salt Lake City, and that maintains relationships with 3 wives and 7 kids!

For a glimpse, search for Big Love – Season 2 Promo on YouTube


This British “new generation teenage series” treats about sex, drugs, bulimia, religion, homosexuality and teenage despair. Written by teens for teens, it was an instant success. These youngsters have three things in mind: sex, sex and … sex. There is the good-looking guy, the Muslim, the gay, the anorexic, the virgin, and a night-clubber in love of his teacher. What they have in common? Their frustration. Dramatic and touching.

For a glimpse, search for Skins season 2 [OFFICIAL TRAILER] on YouTube

One Tree Hill

One Tree Hill is about the day to day life of three teenagers who live in a love triangle. Both raised separately in One Tree Hill in South Carolina, Lucas & Nathan, two half-brothers find become rivals, not only on the basketball court, but also to win the hearth of Peyton Sawyer (Hilarie Burton). This superficial series talks about love stories more than it does sex though. Dedicated to teenage only.

For a glimpse, search for One Tree Hill trailer – The Choice on YouTube


The LG Shine is the latest addition to the reputed Black Label series. Following up a highly successful model is always hard. Especially after the overwhelming success enjoyed by LG Chocolate – another member of the Black Label series. However, LG has been very successful in pulling out another stunner that is complete opposite to the LG Chocolate, but still has many uncanny resemblance to be included in the same mobile phone line up. The LG Shine is even known by LG KE970. However, due to the highly reflective stainless steel body and a 'ghost' display that hides away when not in use, the mobile phone earned its popular nick name – the LG Shine. The handset is just 13.8 mm thick and weighs 119 grams.

The mirror effect screen is TFT based and can produce more than 262k vibrant and accurate colors. All metal body of the LG Shine gives the phone a classy look apart from the robust feel. The LG Shine is equipped with a 2.0 mega pixel camera with auto focus, digital zoom and integrated flash. You can get a perfect picture in all situations with the LG Shine. The camera is capable of recording high quality videos so that you do not miss your camcorder anywhere. Sharing pictures and videos through the LG Shine with friends and family via MMS, email and the most happening – picture blogging.

The LG Shine supports triband GSM mobile network and shifts bands automatically. Voice clarity and superior network reception is its trademark. The LG Shine is power-packed with all data connectivity tools. Mobile internet via GPRS and EDGE to local data transfer with compatible devices like your PC via Blue tooth and USB, the mobile phone is all you'll ever need to get connected with the cyber community. You can send and receive emails with attachments. The handset features a Document viewer to view attachments of MS Office documents and PDF files.


One of the best things you can do for your business is to give information away. Information empowers your customer and brings them back for more. There are many great ways to give information to current and potential customers, which will instill confidence in your business. Many send out newsletters or email online newsletters to keep customers in their minds. It is important to keep customers aware of what is going on and tell them you appreciate their patronage. Some businesses send out gift certificates and Christmas Cards. But there is an easier and better way. One I think you might be aware of.

I recommend writing articles about things in which you have lots of knowledge in, areas of expertise where you are either an expert or borderline expert. Many companies and professionals write articles or have columns in industry rags or trade journals. Some write articles in their newspapers. But the very best way I have found to get the word out is this fast growing really cool company called where you can post your articles for free and people from all over the world come to see them and often reprint them on their websites, their company newsletters, the ezines and even read them on the Radio. This is especially good for someone like me, who has the perfect face for radio as I was once told by a former girlfriend.

Since it costs no money to post you can post as many articles as you would like. So I tried it at first by posting 2 articles and I was surprised when I searched “ME” on the Internet and found someone else liked my articles and posted them on their websites. So then, I thought; HA so I posted 10 more. Wow, again I saw three of my new articles on the Internet and people actually contacted my business within only 4 days. So, I posted some more. Then I got addicted, because it is so fun. So over the next 8 weeks, I posted 1000 articles. Today. I have searched and found at least one of my articles on about 45 websites, but I am sure it is much more, those are just the ones I could find. And in that time all my articles total have received 85,000 hits or views. I have had so many people contact my business, I had to take my website off the bottom my articles. But they still find me. I travel so much; I cannot call everyone back. HELP. It works too good.

As a writer I am not very good really, but each time I write an article I get better and actually some people like my articles even though my writing skills are not so great. I think everyone for their business should write one article per day at least so that they will have 30 articles per month and in no time they will be getting contacted by people all over the world who might like to do businesses with them. That is how it works you see, I know because they keep contacting ME.

I cannot believe the power of writing articles on the Internet. I wish I knew about this sooner. If I can do this and I am not even a writer really then you can too. I still don’t believe it, you have to admit it is pretty cool. But each article brings me business and in 8-weeks I already have 85,000 hits and hundreds and hundreds of stars next to my articles on people actually like what I wrote? Cool. All these people are coming to my websites and my Internet traffic has went up a lot.

Each article brings me new contacts and since I have posted 1000 articles; that is 1000 ways I improved my business. I am averaging over 2700 article views per day now and that is almost 1 million article views per year; it works, 1 million people will read my articles in the coming year. Write more articles everyone, increase your business today, what would you do with one million potential new customers? I think I will write some more articles tomorrow. Think about it


Booby Trap Performance Bond

“The Surety, for value received, hereby stipulates and agrees that if the Contractor has been declared in default by the Obligee, and there has been no uncontested failure, which has not been remedied or waived, of the Obligee to pay the Contractor as required under the Construction Contract: (i) The Surety shall promptly remedy the default… “

Waaaa?! We read this over and over to understand the implications. Is this just another boring bond form, or is there a Booby Trap, an elaborate effort to gain an advantage over the surety?

Every bonding company has their own standard Performance and Payment Bond forms. For us, we prefer to use the AIA A-312 unmodified P&P bond. This is a well balanced, widely accepted form. Whenever we receive a special bond form, we must review it carefully. Why did the obligee spend the time and money to devise this? There must be some advantages – for them.

Last week we received an obligee’s mandatory bond form on a private contract and a key phrase is stated above. Our client is the GC / prime contractor. Sometimes the unique bond forms are not too bad. Let’s pick apart this one. Maybe you’ll run into it some time.

This language is very important because it concerns the Obligee’s responsibility under the contract. In order for the Obligee to be entitled to make a performance bond claim, they must fulfill their end of the bargain, which is to PAY for the work. Is a bond claim for lack of performance reasonable if the Obligee has failed to pay the contractor? Of course not! They can’t work for free.

What are the implications of the wording in that special bond form? Let’s use the A-312 as a benchmark. (Owner means Obligee) It says:

“If there is no Owner Default under the Construction Contract, the Surety’s obligation under this bond shall arise after… ” And in the definitions it goes on to say:

“Owner Default. Failure of the Owner, which has not been remedied or waived, to pay the Contractor as required under the Construction Contract or to perform and complete or comply with other material terms of the Construction Contract.”

Pretty simple. If the owner fails to pay for the work, and then makes a bond claim, the surety has an appropriate reason to deny the claim. So how does it work in the Booby Trap Bond? Instead of the convoluted lawyer talk, let’s turn it into plain English. It says…

Conditions for failure of the Obligee:

  1. Neglected to declare the Contractor is in default (an official written statement) and,
  2. There must be an unremedied or unwaived failure to pay the Contractor that the Obligee has not contested
Ugh… that last part. Assume that in every case, the Obligee will contest an allegation that they have failed. When they do, the surety has no claim defense even if the contractor has not been paid.

What a trap for the unwary bond underwriter! It would have been more fair if the bond said “Obligee is entitled to make a bond claim even if they don’t pay for the work.” But then people would understand…

Special bond forms can be benign or Booby Trapped. We just have to read every one to find out.


Some beginner students (and advanced) usually have some problems with when they should use POR, PARA or PORQUE and it can be one of the most frustrating topics to learn in all of Spanish. In this lesson we are going to review some rules to recognize when we should use one or another.

We use POR when we want to speak about the reason behind something. In this case you have to use a noun after POR.

POR + Noun: “Me gusta Buenos Aires por el clima.” (I like Buenos Aires because of the weather.)
“Como pollo por las prote√≠nas que tiene.” (I eat chicken because it has protein.)

In Spanish you should use PARA when you are speaking about the objective of an action or the objective of an object. In this case you will use the verb in the infinitive form. PARA + Infinitive Verb: “Ahorro dinero para viajar a otro pais”. (I save money to travel to another country.)/ “El lapiz sirve para escribir.” (The pencil is used to write.).

Finally, we use Porque when you are speaking about the reason of something, but instead of using just the infinitive of the verb, we use the conjugation of the verb.

PORQUE + Conjugated Verb: “Voy a comprarme ropa nueva porque quiero estar elegante esta noche”.
(I am going to buy new clothes because I want to be elegant tonight.)

So, when someone asks you: “Por que estudias espanol?”
(Why do you study Spanish?), you can answer in different ways:

Por mi trabajo. (Because of my job.)
Por el crecimiento del mercado latino. (Because of the growth of the Latin market.)
Para poder comunicarme con personas que hablan espanol. (To be able to communicate with people who speak Spanish.)
Para viajar por Sudamerica. (For travelling around South America.)
Porque me gusta. (Because I like it.)
Porque quiero conseguir un trabajo mejor. (Because I want to find a better job.)

This little lesson doesn’t cover all aspects of when to use POR, PARA and PORQUE, but it should give you a good start at understanding some important differences of when they are used. Be on the lookout for more lessons about POR, PARA Y PORQUE in the future.

I will end this lesson by mentioning a couple of learning Spanish tools that you can use to increase your knowledge about this topic. The Practice Makes Perfect books are among the best for learning Spanish. There are currently about a dozen books in the Practice Makes Perfect series, covering various topic from vocabulary to grammar. Another one that I have recommended to my students is the Learning Spanish Like Crazy audio course which teaches informal or familiar Spanish, but not slang.


In some recent times, the telecommunications market has become all the more convenient and flexible than ever. These days, you can find a large number of services, which came in to action to meet the ever growing demands of the mobile phone users. All such mobile phone plans are designed very carefully with a close consideration to the needs of the users. However, not all the plans are favoured by the mobile phone users. These plans include a number of contract plans and various other methods to go mobile. Among all these, one plan that has still not lost its popularity is pay as you go. The precise reason for this could be that pay as you go deals are one of the most cost- effective ways and offers you ample liberty to continue or withdraw from the plan. Here is what all you need to know about the pay as you go deals.

The pay as you go deals can be availed on any of the latest handsets from the reputed mobile manufacturers. It means there is no boundation, as far as the handset is concerned. You can take the pay as you go on any of the handsets of Nokia, Samsung, Motorola, LG, Sony Ericsson and so on. These plans offer you much flexibility and you can buy the talk time plan, which you find most suitable for your needs and financial capabilities.

Another positive thing about the pay as you go mobile phone deals is that you do not need to enter in any contract. This implies that you are not related to one particular network provider and are free to move from one plan to another. On the other hand, in order to stick to the same plan you can buy more talk time. Or else, you can buy a calling card of the desirable network. It has proved a great boon for those individuals, who are not frequent users of their mobile phones. In addition to this, students and frequent travelers can save a huge sum of the roaming charges with the help of pay as you go phone deals.


Witness to Inhumanity

A Short Conversation With a Hero, Rufina Amaya

Rufina Amaya survived the massacre of 809 people at El Mozote, El Salvador, on December 11, 1981. She died in March 2007 at the age of sixty-four. She was survived by her few remaining family members and a large host of men and women who admired and supported her. She didn’t consider herself a hero, but a simple woman of faith that does justice. And a woman, a person of love.

Bearing witness! Presente! She bore a lot: the killings of nearly an entire village, including four of her children and her husband, by US trained government thugs, ordered by paranoid leaders who didn’t want their power threatened. The soldiers wrenched Amaya’s two little babies from her arms.

Ronald Reagan’s administration trained and equipped the Salvadoran army whom he called “Freedom Fighters,” and supported a government that Bishop Oscar Romero, at the cost of his own life on March 24, 1980, courageously denounced as perpetrators of gross violations of human rights and the murders of innocent people.

As a spirited response to this savage massacre of human beings, human flowers, Amaya spoke to small groups about her Catholic faith and practice and the need for all, both citizens and their governments, to respect and promote human rights.

May she rest in Ever-Abiding, Light-Bearing Peace.


November 20, 1999 Interview: Fort Benning, Georgia

Rufina emanated an aura of genuine bearing witness to an atrocity, while remaining peaceful and utterly human and humble. I just loved Rufina when I first saw her: light, even in darkness. She had a special beauty, small boned, a round open face, crafted from unbearable suffering met by indomitable spirit. She fixed her hair, pulled back and up into a bun, which stuck straight up. She was slightly chubby; children were extremely attracted to her. She told us she just wanted to tell her story in quiet, righteous anger, calling for real change. She exuded courage, simplicity. and nobility; her voice was strong when she addressed thousands of people at the protests against the School of the Americas (now named Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation).


God saved me because he needed someone to tell the story of what happened.-Rufina Amaya, New York Times, 1996.

MZC: Thanks so much, Rufina. I just feel I’d like to be with you. That feeling of sharing this little moment with you and wanting to support you. You’re wonderful, a light-full inspiration; I pray for you every day.

When the 1981 massacre occurred at El Mozote, with its 809 victims, it was first denied by both the Salvadoran and American governments, despite what many community and church leaders were telling the world. You, being the sole survivor, had the courage to tell what happened in your village of twenty houses facing the community square. You’ve told this story now for eighteen years.

In 1990, you were the first to testify in a criminal complaint against the Atlacatl Battalion (trained by American advisors) by Pedro Chica Romero of La Joya, a nearby hamlet to El Mozote. Pedro was a witness in his little hamlet to another killing of some of his relatives and neighbors by the Atlacatl Battalion. It wasn’t until the El Salvador Peace Treaty of 1992 that an Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team was appointed by the United Nations to excavate the zone and finally begin exhumation.

You have our admiration and love, Rufina.

May I ask you about what motivates you to tell your heart-breaking story?

RA: I feel I’m doing what God wants me to do, what I have all my desire to do. It’s part of how I practice being a Catholic, not a separate activity. My story telling and speaking with people come from my heart and also from my pain, my suffering the loss of my husband, Domingo Claros, who was twenty-nine; my son, Cristino, nine, and my three daughters Maria Dolores, five, Maria Lillian, three; and Maria Isabel, eight months. I can’t even cry anymore. It’s true: my body produced so many tears that they are all gone. I speak to you; I speak for them, my family, my friends, and my neighbors who cannot speak any more. Even though I’m a simple person, I use my voice so people will not forget what happened at El Mozote.

MZC: Just two more questions would be all right? What’s your participation in the organized church? Do you consider yourself an “activist”?

RA: I’m a lay pastor in the Catholic Church in El Salvador; my faith is very important as it gives me love, as do my family and friends. My religion gives me courage not to be afraid to speak out loudly, and my religion allows me to get refreshed spiritually. I like to lead “reflection groups,” where we talk about the relationship of God to our own lives. I’ve had so many visitors from all around the world; I truly feel I’m meant to talk, and I’m happy and serious to talk. I do practice quiet prayer and have some reflection time also, but I would call myself an activist. I’ll never be quiet about what’s right and what’s wrong, what’s unjust abuse, unjust murder against innocent, good people. I’m publicly asking those responsible for the murders to publicly ask our pardon. Yes, I am an activist and also a Catholic. I’m outspoken. I’m not satisfied. Yet, I’m a person of faith too, not only an activist.


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